This citation guide is based on the 6th edition of the APA Manual. The latest edition, published in Octoberis not yet supported, but we have compiled a quick guide to the most important 7th edition changes. An in-text citation is a concise way to show the reader where the original idea came from and to give credit to the original author. Use one every time you quote or paraphrase a source. When there are three or more authors, separate their last names using commas. If you cite the same source again, to save space, you shorten the citation.
When a source does not list an individual author, it can often be attributed to an organization instead. When you quote a sourceyou also have to add the page number to the in-text citation.
Basic Rules of APA Format
You can combine them into one set of parentheses, separated by semicolons. Full in-text citation guide. Every source cited in the text must also appear in your reference list. Note: The journal title and volume number should be italicized.
Do you want to cite an imageinterviewYouTube videomovieor another source type that is not on this list? We have many more APA Style examples to help you cite correctly.
If you cite multiple sources by the same author, then sort them by publication year. Full reference list guide. There are certain formatting rules you must adhere to when writing a paper in APA format. In addition to these general rules, there are more specific requirements for formatting the title pagerunning headabstractreference page and headings and subheadings. APA is a publication manual widely used by professionals, researchers and students in the social and behavioural sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.
Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in before applying APA format.
This will make sure that:.That means, unless your instructor says otherwise, that if you're writing a research paper for your Biology, Business, Chemistry, Criminal Justice, Education, History, Medical Laboratory Science, Psychology, or Sociology classes, then you should probably be citing your sources according to the APA citation style. APA papers are divided into four major sections. There are two common types of APA research papers, and both are further divided into sections.
Literature Review Title Page The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation. Include the page header by inserting page numbers flush right at the top of the page and then typing the title flush left of the page numbers. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.
Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial sand last name. Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research. Introduction The introduction presents the problem that the paper addresses. It should start on the same page as the Literature Review.
List of References Start on a new page with the title References centered; do not underline or italicize. All citations in the paper should have a reference on this page.
Citing references in-text follow the author-date citation model: Kessler found that among epidemiological samples. InKessler's study of epidemiological samples found.
According to APA citation style, you must have a References page at the end of your research paper. All entries on the References page must correspond to the resources that were cited in the main text of your paper. Entries are listed alphabetically by the author's last name or the editor's or translator's name or the title ignoring initial articlesand the hanging indent style is used. For example:. Berndt, T. Friendship quality and social development.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Wegener, D.
Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66They help to continue the scholarly conversation.
When considering citations and references for your papers, you can ask yourself, "could someone find this information in the future? A client's personal file would not need a citation because your reader cannot go find that information again. Census statistics would require a citation because your reader could go locate that information again.
If any of the elements listed above are unavailable, check out "Missing pieces: How to write an APA style reference even without all the information" from APA Style Blog for more information. APA Style 6th ed. It provides invaluable guidance on all aspects of the writing process, from the ethics of authorship to the word choice that best reduces bias in language.
Well-known for its authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures and tone that will result in strong, simple, and elegant scientific communication.
The Sixth Edition offers new and expanded instruction on publication ethics, statistics, journal article reporting standards, electronic reference formats, and the construction of tables and figures. Key to this edition of the Publication Manual is an updated and expanded Web presence.
Visit the APA Style web site to Look up additional supplemental material keyed to the book Test your knowledge of APA Style with a free tutorial on style basics Learn about the changes in the sixth edition with a free tutorial reviewing key revisions Sign up for an on-line course to enrich and enhance your understanding of APA Style Read the APA Style blog and share your comments on writing and referencing Consult frequently asked questions to sharpen your understanding of APA Style Examine additional resources on such topics as ethics, statistics, and writing Familiarise yourself with submission standards for APA books and journals What''s New in the Sixth Edition?
Book has been updated to acknowledge and incorporate advances in computer technology. New discussions of the creation, submission, and storage of supplemental data. New guidelines for referencing electronic sources. New and expanded reference examples for a variety of on-line sources. Book has been reorganised and streamlined for ease of use Organised to describe the writing process from idea to publication, it begins with background information on ethical issues in publishing, then moves on to manuscript structure and content, then writing style and rules, then graphics and references, then guidance on working with the publisher.
Creating APA Format Papers Using Examples
Sample paper section has been moved up and featured to better exemplify manuscript structure and content Like discussions have been moved to one place in the book, with discussions of function followed by instruction on form. Focus has been broadened to include readers in the behavioural and social sciences. Information specific to APA has been moved to the web, where it is more broadly accessible and can be updated frequently.
New examples throughout the book have been drawn from publications in education, business, and nursing as well as psychology.APA format provides guidelines and structures for citing those sources in a way that helps you avoid plagiarism and give proper credit to your sources.
In addition to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association7th edition, the APA maintains its own website with multiple examples of how to format your paper and cite your sources.
In most cases, each of these elements will begin on a separate page, and it is important to note that not all academic papers will include all of these elements. For specific types of reports, your subsections may need to be named with headings that reflect the type of report you are writing. Be sure to check with your instructor to determine what the expectations are for your paper.
The APA style demos in this section will provide you with more information regarding APA basic formatting, in-text citations, and the references list. Video Transcript. This short video is meant to give students who are brand new to APA format some context and basic overview information about using APA format for college papers. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, and APA format is the formatting style that many academic majors use to format their papers and cite sources within their papers.
There is in-text citing, where you use citations within your paper to let your readers know where your source material comes from.
Finally, there is the References list, where you list all of the publication information for any sources used within your paper. In the 7th edition of APA format, you should have a cover page that includes your title, your name, the name of your program and school, the name of your class, the name of your professor, and the date.
APA citation guidelines
You should also have the page number at the top right corner. Your page numbers should appear on every page. You should begin your essay on the next page. Your margins should be 1 inch all the way around. You should use a clean, standard font, and you should double space your lines and single space after all punctuation. Be sure to indent by hitting tab for all new paragraphs. It is important to remember that you must cite your sources within your text when you quote, summarize, and paraphrase information from your sources.
This means, you must cite even information you put into your own words. In APA, there are two basic structures for in-text citations—the narrative citation and the parenthetical citation.When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart. Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number. For a student paper, this only includes the page number.
The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation. It acknowledges that many font choices are legitimate, and it advises writers to check with their publishers, instructors, or institutions for guidance in cases of uncertainty.
These include sans serif fonts such as point Calibri, point Arial, and point Lucida Sans Unicode as well as serif fonts such as point Times New Roman, point Georgia, point Computer Modern. Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e. The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's nameand the institutional affiliation.
A professional paper should also include the author note. A student paper should also include the course number and nameinstructor nameand assignment due date. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface. APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.
Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.
Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial sand last name. Do not use titles Dr. Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliationwhich should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research.Date published November 14, by Jack Caulfield.
Date updated: May 15, Use the interactive tool to see examples:. Note that the format is slightly different for reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias. The book title is written in sentence case only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns. Include other contributors e.
In the 7th edition of the APA manualthe publisher location is no longer included. For example:. Anderson, B. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism.
A citation of an ebook i. Add a DOI where available, and otherwise link to the page where the ebook can be purchased or accessed. Since ebooks sometimes do not include page numbers, APA recommends using other methods of identifying a specific passage in your in-text citations — for example, a chapter or section title or a paragraph number. A book accessed through a web browser for example, in PDF form or on Google Books follows a slightly different format:.
The 7th edition of the APA manual provides an updated format for ebooks and online books. Burns, A. When citing a particular chapter from a book containing texts by various authors e.
Creating APA Format Papers Using Examples
When citing from one volume of a multivolume book, the format varies slightly depending on whether each volume has a title or just a number.
If the volume has a specific title, this should simply be written as part of the title in your reference list entry:. Eliot, T. The poems of T. Eliot: Vol. Collected and uncollected poems Ricks, C.
If the volume is only numbered, not titled, the volume number is not italicized and appears in parentheses after the title:. Dylan, B. Chronicles Vol.
If you refer to the book in general, you may wish to cite the whole thing rather than a specific volume. In this case, individual volume titles are not included even if they do exist:.
Eliot Vols.Your title page should include a page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The seventh edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page, including separate guidelines for student and professional title pages.
All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list.
Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References in bold and centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title.
Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table.
If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes.
General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column, row, or cell; probability notes specify the probability level. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials.
Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included.
Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference.
However, you typically need to include the online location of the document. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix a four-digit or more number assigned to organizations and a suffix a number assigned by the publisher. Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document.
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